Its energy density remains constant over time. the view will zoom out, revealing open clusters of stars in our galaxy NASA Science Solar System Exploration. Search. Until we figure out why, along with the puzzles of dark matter and dark energy, this will remain one of the most compelling mysteries about the very nature of our cosmos. Images and Textures. Tycho-2 and (NASA, ESA, and M. Koss, Eureka Scientific, Inc.) SHARE. The discrepancy is, arguably, the biggest conundrum in modern cosmology. So astronomers have to be innovative and creative while using a wide range of tools and techniques. These galaxies are spread out over more than 19 billion light-years in all directions, corresponding to more than 11 billion years of cosmic history in our expanding Universe. This imprint has a name: baryon acoustic oscillations, because it’s the normal matter (baryons) imprinting pressure waves (acoustic oscillations) on the large-scale structure of the Universe. Survey. Website designed by There is an uncanny resemblance between the networks single-cell slime molds create to seek food and the vast cobweb structure of filaments gravity builds to tie galaxies and clusters of galaxies together. The constellation boundaries are those established by the International Astronomical Union in 1930. The latest results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey not only utilize an unprecedentedly large number of galaxies over the largest distance span ever, they also employ the full suite of corrections that we know how to make in modern cosmology. This website is for all fans of the night sky. It’s one thing to calculate the effect, which we can do from a theoretical perspective. I am a Ph.D. astrophysicist, author, and science communicator, who professes physics and astronomy at various colleges. Rainfall is the primary source of fresh water for humans, plants, and animals. And yet, the story that we learn is comforting in many ways — as it confirms, independently, a number of things we thought were true — but it sheds a surprising light on many aspects of the Universe. He has created the online … When we perform our corrections and move from redshift space (left) to real space (right), the FOGs disappear. In our nearby Universe, for example, which has been expanding for 13.8 billion years since the Big Bang, we’ve measured how galaxies cluster together. © Dominic Both methods, independently, allow us to infer the Universe's expansion history. "We know both the ancient history of the universe and its recent expansion history fairly well, but there's a troublesome gap in the middle 11 billion years," said Dr Kyle Dawson. The ancient light, called the cosmic microwave background, was imprinted on the sky when the universe was 370,000 years old. Longitude: The redshift measurement is an important component, since it tells us how fast this object appears to be receding from us, an important component of understanding how the Universe has expanded. When you have a large collection of mass, like a galaxy cluster, it causes the individual galaxies within it to move around very quickly, including along our line-of-sight direction. live 3d view of the solar system. These accurate maps are based on NASA elevation and imagery data. Gaia DR1 catalogs. Scientists have released the largest ever three-dimensional map of the universe, proving that it is basically flat and filling in an 11 billion year gap in its history. Huge 3D-map of the universe revealed More than 2 billion galaxies and quasars were measured for the project. Astrophysicists unveil biggest-ever 3D map of the universe based on analysis of more than four MILLION galaxies and high-energy quasars Map relies … As we look out in distance, we look back in time. The positions of deep sky objects were taken from the NGC2000.0 catalog It took thousands of scientists working for hundreds of years for us to arrive at this picture, and yet the lack of a consensus on what the expansion rate actually is tells us that either something is dreadfully wrong, we have an unidentified error somewhere, or there's a new scientific revolution just on the horizon. The expanding Universe, full of galaxies and the complex structure we observe today, arose from a ... [+] smaller, hotter, denser, more uniform state. 78.88°W Created for the Google Chrome web browser. The results agree with the CMB data, and a Universe made up of ~25% dark matter, as opposed to 5% normal matter, with an expansion rate of around 68 km/s/Mpc. of the light elements (BBN), you get a constraint that the Universe's expansion rate is ~68 km/s/Mpc. three-dimensional atlas of the Universe. But with more than two decades of data — and a detailed, 3D map of more … NASA’s real-time science encyclopedia of deep space exploration. Gradually the view will zoom out, revealing open clusters of stars in our galaxy (red dots), the whole flat disk of the Milky Way with globular clusters of stars around it (purple dots), and then the Local Group of o… until you run into that “wave” feature imprinted in the very early Universe. the scroll-wheel on your mouse. There are a lot of challenges that get in the way, including: A simple example of bias can be seen just by looking at the closest galaxy cluster to Earth: the Virgo cluster. The Sun is at the large orange dot at the center of this three-dimensional atlas of the Universe. spherical swarm of stars, and that open star clusters form a larger swarm, also Gradually it’s harder to see distant galaxies because they’re fainter. The inset for each color-coded section of the map includes an image of a typical galaxy or quasar from that section, and also the signal of the pattern that the eBOSS team measures there. Clusters, Dominic As far as data goes, we’ve never had anything like this before. Ford 2011–2021. In the coming years, the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will take us to tens of millions of galaxies, with even greater advances coming with the launch of ESA's Euclid, NASA's WFIRST, and the NSF's ground-based Vera Rubin Observatory. Here you'll find a growing collection of 3D models, textures, and images from inside NASA. So, the simulation not only shows how the objects of the night into the Universe we can see. This effect, of getting pulled in by gravity but pushed out by other interactions, creates wave-like effects in the density of normal matter. The discrepancy is, arguably, the biggest conundrum in modern cosmology. When we perform our corrections and move from redshift space (left) to real space (right), the FOGs disappear. The Universe is not curved on the largest scales, but is spatially flat to 499 parts in 500: the tightest constraint ever. Within the most recent 2 billion years, we have light from nearby galaxies, mapped during the first decade of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (1998-2008). The image, taken by Hubble's Wide Field Camera 3, shows the merging galaxy NGC 6240. On average, you’ll discover that: It means that, today, if you drew a smooth curve that represented how likely you’d be to find another galaxy, the wave feature means that you’re actually more likely to find a galaxy that’s 500 million light-years away than you’d anticipate, but less likely to find one 400 million or 600 million light-years away. NASA | LANCE | Fire Information for Resource Management System provides near real-time active fire data from MODIS and VIIRS to meet the needs of firefighters, scientists and users interested in monitoring fires. Only show objects brighter than magnitude. 3D Printing! A 3D map showing the distance to galaxies in billions of light-years. Users can subscribe to email alerts bases on their area of interest. centered around the Sun. Ask Ethan: Is Light Fundamentally A Wave Or A Particle? It’s another thing to measure the effect nearby, which the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has been doing since it began science operations in 1998. NASA’s Lucy mission is one step closer to launch as L’TES – the Lucy Thermal Emission Spectrometer – has been integrated into the spacecraft. The Big Bang is commonly accepted as the catalyst for existence in our universe, and NASA is aiming to find out more about it with a new telescope. Another exciting confirmation is that the Universe is incredibly spatially flat: its maximum allowable curvature is just 0.2% of the critical density, a constraint that’s 20 times stronger than last year’s controversial claim that the Universe might be closed instead of flat. Mars Odyssey 3D Model A 3D model of asteroid Vesta. Skip Navigation. It is a new and highly attractive and engaging way to view the whole Solar system,sun,earth,stars and learn a lot of interesting astronomy facts about it. how big are planets; dwarf planets; speed of light; universe sandbox; current missions. But the biggest surprising result comes from the attempt to measure the expansion rate of the Universe. To map the nearby universe out to 6 billion years’ travel time, they collected spectra of large, red galaxies. Of course, the whole of the Milky Over the subsequent years, gravitation works to to pull matter — both normal matter and dark matter — into the regions of greatest density, while radiation pushes back differently on the normal matter (which it interacts with) than the dark matter (which it doesn’t). Largest ever 3D map of the universe fills in mysterious, 11-billion-year 'gap' in history . Distances to other objects were determined using queries to NASA Extragalactic Database For education purposes the website can be used like an online planetarium. It took thousands of scientists working for hundreds of years for us to arrive at this picture, and yet the lack of a consensus on what the expansion rate actually is tells us that either something is dreadfully wrong, we have an unidentified error somewhere, or there's a new scientific revolution just on the horizon. Way is full of stars and clusters, but most of them remain unknown. Data from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-Ray Observatory are used to create a map of dark matter (blue) in galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745. Billions of years later, after the Universe expands and forms stars and galaxies, these waves can still be seen: they’re imprinted in the Universe itself. Astronomers Create First 3D Map Of Hidden Universe. These studies allow us to connect all these measurements into a complete story of the expansion of the Universe.". How Far Will Our Search For Aliens Go in 2021? For one, they found that dark energy is incredibly consistent with a cosmological constant: there’s no good evidence that it evolves with time or varies through space. color-coded results. This set of star maps was created by plotting the position, brightness, and color of just over 100 million stars from the Bright Star, Tycho-2, and UCAC3 star catalogs. Using the data from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ernie Wright- a science visualizer who works at the Scientific Visualization Studio at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland- has brought the Moon to life in unprecedented detail. The reason for these varied speeds aren't because of the expanding Universe, but rather because of the gravitational force exerted by the massive galaxy cluster itself. Enjoy the experiences below on your mobile device, or visit this page on Mac or PC for even more ways to explore. We are now up to SDSS-16, which can go all the way back to just ~3 billion years after the Big Bang, mapping out more than 2 million galaxies in the process. NASA releases 3D map of the moon. According to Will Percival, the Survey Scientist for the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) project, "Taken together, detailed analyses of the eBOSS map and the earlier SDSS experiments have now provided the most accurate expansion history measurements over the widest-ever range of cosmic time. When you combine data from baryon acoustic oscillations (blue swath) with data from the abundances ... [+] of the light elements (BBN), you get a constraint that the Universe's expansion rate is ~68 km/s/Mpc. Standard candles (L) and standard rulers (R) are two different techniques astronomers use to measure ... [+] the expansion of space at various times/distances in the past. to the maximum present depth of SDSS. finding a galaxy at a certain distance from any other galaxy is governed by the relationship between dark matter and normal matter. Where possible, their distances were taken from the DAML02 database of open There are few measurements we can take to help us understand how distant a galaxy is: we can measure its brightness, we can measure its apparent size, and we can measure its redshift. Rain also moves heat between the atmosphere, oceans, and land. (red dots), the whole flat disk of the Milky Way with globular clusters of Timezone: 42.89°N So, the location of these signals reveals the expansion rate of the Universe at different times in cosmic history. Mapping the cosmos sounds like a daunting challenge, but now an international team of astronomers has managed to do just that. Fire data is available for download or can be viewed through a map interface. Clusters (Harris 1996). Best Map Ever of the Universe This map shows the oldest light in our universe, as detected with the greatest precision yet by the Planck mission. explore the solar system in 3d with this webapp. That’s why the team used data from BBN: Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. They find a Universe that’s 70% dark energy and 30% total matter (normal matter and dark matter combined), with an uncertainty of only ~1% on both figures. able to observe. The positions and distances to stars were taken from the Hipparcos, Astrophysicists on Monday published the largest-ever 3D map of the Universe, the result of an analysis of more than four million galaxies and ultra-bright, energy-packed quasars. extra redshifts or blueshifts due to the gravitational influence of its surrounding masses, those galaxy positions that we infer from redshift will be distorted along our line-of-sight, leading to the Fingers of God effect. The latest results, from BAO + BBN alone, give a value of 68.2 km/s/Mpc. geometry of the Milky Way. 3D Resources web application. Both methods, independently, allow us to infer the Universe's expansion history. You Might Also Like. This means that it is biased towards showing The first plots, in fact, that saw this effect led to a very catchy name for these redshift-space distortions: Fingers of God. Click on objects to see more information about them. Our scientists and hardworking robots are exploring the wild frontiers of our solar system. All Rights Reserved, This is a BETA experience. This is based on over 2 million galaxies observed from nearby to in excess of 19 billion light-years away, corresponding to more than 11 billion years of cosmic history. By James Rogers | Fox ... SUN GETS CLOSE-UP IN HISTORIC NEW NASA PICTURES. Imagine the Universe, if you can, in the early stages of the hot Big Bang. Mini Giraffes Spotted In Africa For The First Time Ever, different methods don’t give the same answer, might help us finally solve this cosmic mystery, more than 11 billion years of cosmic history, which is what the latest release has just accomplished, last year’s controversial claim that the Universe might be closed instead of flat, Treknology: The Science of Star Trek from Tricorders to Warp Drive, Beyond the Galaxy: How humanity looked beyond our Milky Way and discovered the entire Universe. This agrees with results from the CMB but disfavors results from the cosmic distance ladder. Over the first few minutes, nuclear fusion can occur between subatomic particles, creating light elements like various isotopes of hydrogen and helium. 3,840°K (cooler) 7,300°K. At any time you can click and drag the simulation to rotate it A series of different groups seeking to measure the expansion rate of the Universe, along with their ... [+] color-coded results. The … We have converted some of our models to .stl format for 3D printing and we are working on more. it’s harder to resolve individual galaxies that are close to one another. Geneva: Astrophysicists on Monday published the largest-ever 3D map of the Universe, the result of an analysis of more than four million galaxies and ultra-bright, energy-packed quasars. 2002), or from Bill Harris's Catalog of Globular Buffalo (42.89°N; 78.88°W), Catalog of Globular nearby objects, as these are bright and prominent in the sky. (Sinnott 1998). If we were to plot out where galaxies are and ignored this effect, we’d see that their inferred positions were incorrect. FOGs, or Fingers of God, are known to appear in redshift space. (NED) based on any available data in the literature. The Solar System Encyclopedia : 3D Astronomy Universe Astronomy app will show you the real existence of planets in the Solar System view Astronomy 3D planets system. sphere, showing fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background). the expansion of space at various times/distances in the past. One of those tools is NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory. We are now up to SDSS-16, which can go all the way back to just ~3 billion years after the Big Bang, mapping out more than 2 million galaxies in the process. sky fit into a 3D structure around the Sun, but also the limitations of how far I have won numerous awards for science writing. al. I have won numerous awards for science writing since 2008 for my blog, Starts With A Bang, including the award for best science blog by the Institute of Physics. But doing so would defeat the purpose of having an independent data set, just as using the “distance ladder” ellipsoid (in purple) would defeat having an independent data set. These maps depict monthly total rainfall around the world. The galaxies of the Virgo Cluster are all between 50 and 60 million light-years away, but some of ... [+] them move towards us while others move away from us at more than 2,000 km/s. The latest SDSS map, shown above on the left, could only show the galaxy distribution it does if the universe was composed and evolved a certain way. EST, Light The results agree with the CMB data, and a Universe made up of ~25% dark matter, as opposed to 5% normal matter, with an expansion rate of around 68 km/s/Mpc. Yet even with our best measurements of the Universe itself, different methods don’t give the same answer. We still haven’t seen an imprint of neutrinos in the large-scale structure of the Universe, constraining their total mass (of the electron, muon, and tau neutrinos combined) to be less than 0.11 eV, meaning that the electron must be at least 4.6 million times heavier than all three neutrino masses combined. as you move farther away, you’re (gradually) less likely to find another galaxy. Stars, Galaxies, and Dark Matter What objects and materials make up the universe, and how do we study the invisible as well as the visible? I am a Ph.D. astrophysicist, author, and science communicator, who professes physics and astronomy at various colleges. manually. How quickly is it expanding today? Measuring the Big Bang’s leftover glow, the cosmic microwave background, gives us one set of answers, while measuring stars, galaxies, and supernovae gives us a different, incompatible answer. Our team's goal is to provide a one-stop shop for 3D models, images, textures, and visualizations. Location: As we look out in distance, we look back in time. it’s hard to map out distance in the third (depth) dimension. Follow me on Twitter @startswithabang. We are located at the center of this map. Here’s When You Can See Saturn, Jupiter, Mars And Venus With Naked Eyes. All of these resources are free to download and use. Initially, the local stars around the Sun are shown, color coded depending whether they are cool red stars or hot blue ones. and that other effects can come into play, biasing our conclusions. Visualizations . There are now three major players in the quest to measure the expansion of the Universe: the Cosmic Microwave Background, the cosmic distance ladder, and the imprint of acoustic oscillations in the Universe’s large-scale structure. An illustration of clustering patterns due to Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, where the likelihood of ... [+] finding a galaxy at a certain distance from any other galaxy is governed by the relationship between dark matter and normal matter. By Amit Malewar. While the … Our privacy policy is Scientists are generally not able to fly a spacecraft out to the cosmic objects that we want to study in 3D. Finally, to map 11 billion years into the past, they looked to quasars, where material falling onto a central supermassive black hole lights up and outshines its whole galaxy. The Universe not only needs dark energy, but it makes up 70% of the Universe and is perfectly consistent with a cosmological constant. Once the view zooms out to contain both the Sun and the center of This doesn’t solve our cosmic conundrum over how fast the Universe is expanding, but deepens it, adding a remarkable new data set into the camp favoring a lower rate for its value. October 14, 2019 . The map … My two books, Treknology: The Science of Star Trek from Tricorders to Warp Drive, Beyond the Galaxy: How humanity looked beyond our Milky Way and discovered the entire Universe, are available for purchase at Amazon. Rights Reserved, this ringed ice giant was almost named `` George. located! Map … largest ever 3D map of the acoustic scale stretches to be longer longer! Us while others move away from us at more than 2 billion galaxies their! Is NASA ’ s hard to map out distance in the Universe. `` BAO... Field sky map come into play, biasing our conclusions how Big are planets ; dwarf ;. A group of astronomers looking to better understand dark energy have started a... Subscribe to email alerts bases on their area of interest is governed the... Timezone: 42.89°N 78.88°W EST, light night mode Jupiter, Mars and Venus with Naked Eyes background.. Into a complete story of the hot Big Bang Nucleosynthesis with their... [ + ] Survey comes next astrophysics! Jan 2021, 19:16 UTC website designed by also moves heat between the atmosphere, oceans, and science,! Yet even with our best measurements of the Universe is not curved on the largest structures in the distance. Has managed to do just that Catalog ( Sinnott 1998 ) although they 're not official the... And constellations billion galaxies and quasars were measured for the project Sinnott 1998 ) questions, we ’ d that. Look out in distance, we have old red galaxies that take us out 2. Only shows objects that we are working on more light Fundamentally a Wave or a Particle and communicator. Ways to explore on any available data in the sky when the Universe 's dark matter normal... Our corrections and move from redshift space background, was imprinted on the structures... Planet, this ringed ice giant was almost named `` George. hot blue.... To explore discover it even more ways to explore and future fate of our models to.stl format 3D. Elements ( BBN ), you ’ re likely to find a galaxy close your! Normal matter frontiers of our solar system, showing fluctuations in the cosmic objects that we want study... In 1930 left ) to real space ( right ), or Fingers of God, Known... Ringed ice giant was almost named `` George. they ’ re fainter individual galaxies that are close your..., more uniform state neighborhood, including over 100,000 nearby stars motion, which GETS superimposed atop the Universe. Location: Buffalo ( 42.89°N ; 78.88°W ), you get a constraint that Universe. Hardworking robots are exploring the wild frontiers of our solar system also moves heat the. Over time manually zoom in and out, or Fingers of God, are Known to appear redshift! A Ph.D. astrophysicist, author, and what comes next for astrophysics maps you... See that their inferred positions were incorrect reconstruction of 120,000 galaxies and their clustering properties from the database! Us out from 2 to 7 billion years in the sky the cosmos sounds like a daunting,! Than 2 billion galaxies and their clustering properties from the DAML02 database of open clusters ( Dias et al to! Fills in mysterious, 11-billion-year 'gap ' in history for education purposes the website can used. To connect all these measurements into a complete story of the hot Big Bang over! Until you run into that “ Wave ” feature imprinted in the past and future fate our! All visible galaxies, stars and constellations are working on more hardworking robots exploring... Challenge, but now an international team of astronomers has managed to do just that the slider the., was imprinted on the sky when the Universe. ``, from BAO + BBN,! Boundaries are those established by the international Astronomical Union in 1930 … largest ever map... Harris 's Catalog of Globular clusters ( Harris 1996 ) fate of our models.stl... Agrees with results from the CMB but disfavors results from the Hipparcos, Tycho, Tycho-2 and Gaia catalogs. Universe fills in mysterious, 11-billion-year 'gap ' in history effect, GETS! If you can click and drag the simulation to rotate it manually expanding. Frontiers of our Universe. `` arguably, the whole of the stellar,... Experiences below on your mobile device, or visit this page on Mac or PC even... Methods don ’ t give the same answer Buffalo ( 42.89°N ; 78.88°W ), the whole of Universe. Now an international team of astronomers has managed to do just that governed by the Astronomical... And animals blue ones it is biased towards showing nearby objects, these... Any other galaxy is governed by the relationship between dark matter nasa 3d universe map normal matter Fingers God! The location of these signals reveals the expansion of space at various colleges more! Methods don ’ t give the same answer look out in distance, we ’ d understand the. 2,000 km/s or hot blue ones can subscribe to email alerts bases on their area of.... Over 200,000 galaxies, now rivaling the 3D reconstruction of 120,000 galaxies and quasars were measured for project... Their... [ + ] Survey, you get a constraint that Universe... Get a constraint that the Universe expands learned, and M. Koss, Eureka Scientific, Inc. ) SHARE designed., the opposite side of the Universe 's expansion rate is ~68 km/s/Mpc for download or be. Data is available for download or can be viewed through a map.. 68.2 km/s/Mpc ( 42.89°N ; 78.88°W ), you get a constraint that the Universe 's expansion rate of Universe! Better understand dark energy have started creating a three-dimensional map of the Universe, along their. Want to study in 3D with this webapp with the second any time you can see Saturn,,! Old red galaxies that take us out from 2 to 7 billion years in the sky and science communicator who..., which GETS superimposed atop the expanding Universe. `` nasa 3d universe map,,... To these questions, we ’ ve never had anything like this before younger, blue galaxies, us..., they observed younger, blue galaxies latest results, from BAO + BBN alone, give a of... Scientific, Inc. ) SHARE to resolve individual galaxies that take us out from 2 to 7 billion years the! To the cosmic microwave background, was imprinted on the largest scales, but not the. Sloan Digital sky... [ + ] Survey disfavors results from the IAU, although they 're not.. In distance, we ’ d see that their inferred positions were incorrect in a particular way international. A series of different groups seeking to measure the expansion rate change over time, Jupiter, Mars and with... A particular way it ’ s real-time science encyclopedia of deep space sky maps allows you view! Contrast, the biggest conundrum in modern cosmology uniform state.stl format for 3D models, images textures. Depth ) dimension Big are planets ; dwarf planets ; dwarf planets ; speed of light ; Universe sandbox current! Be innovative and creative while using a Wide range of tools and.... Named `` George. from a theoretical perspective the distance to galaxies in billions light-years! “ Wave ” feature imprinted in the early stages of the Milky way may appear entirely devoid of and! Our understanding as well s one thing to calculate the effect, we. 'S expansion rate of the acoustic scale stretches to be longer and longer as sideways. Expansion history exploring the wild frontiers of our models to.stl format for 3D models, textures, science! Large orange dot at the top to manually zoom in and out, they observed younger, blue.. Own, because gravity is attractive the very early Universe. `` possible their... While others move away from us at more than 2,000 km/s rivaling the 3D galaxy-count of the Field... Largest structures in the third ( depth ) dimension are planets ; speed of light ; Universe sandbox ; missions... There, waiting for you to discover it Big Year for nasa 3d universe map project look back in time about.. On your mouse of deep sky objects were taken from the IAU although! Huge 3D-map of the Universe. `` ; 78.88°W ), the local stars around the are! Designed by way, but most of them remain unknown a spacecraft out to the cosmic distance ladder Aliens in! Cosmic history light, called the cosmic distance ladder Jupiter, Mars and Venus with Naked Eyes are other results... Is for all fans of the Universe 's expansion rate change over time, arguably, the side... Prominent in the third ( depth ) dimension the expanding Universe. `` Aliens! Arguably, the location of these resources are free to download and use ~68 km/s/Mpc `` George. to zoom... Imagine the Universe 's expansion history was imprinted on the sky from the CMB but disfavors results the! Using queries to NASA Extragalactic database ( NED ) based on any available data in the past how is. Showing the distance to galaxies in billions of light-years this agrees with results from the database... Our team 's goal is to provide a one-stop shop for 3D printing and we working! They are cool red stars or hot blue ones as these are and. The IAU, although they 're not official of fresh water for humans,,!, their distances were taken from the NGC2000.0 Catalog ( Sinnott 1998 ) )... Latitude: Longitude: Timezone: 42.89°N 78.88°W EST, light night mode they 're official. Expanding today, and science communicator, who professes physics and astronomy various! Website can be viewed through a map interface have old red galaxies that take us out 2... Boundaries are those established by the relationship between dark matter as seen by.!